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It does, however, indirectly criticize both the lack of U. China is always committed to a nuclear policy of no first use of nuclear weapons at any time and under any circumstances, and not using or threatening to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones unconditionally. China advocates the ultimate complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons. China does not engage in any nuclear arms race with any other country and keeps its nuclear capabilities at the minimum level required for national security.

China pursues a nuclear strategy of self-defense, the goal of which is to maintain national strategic security by deterring other countries from using or threatening to use nuclear weapons against China. They are actively fulfilling the international obligations of the armed forces of a major country, comprehensively promoting international military cooperation for the new era, and striving for a better world of lasting peace and common security. At the same time, it is important to note that in some ways, the Chinese White Paper is more moderate in its treatment of the U.

China actively and properly handles its military relationship with the US in accordance with the principles of non-conflict, non-confrontation, mutual respect and win-win cooperation. It strives to make the military-to-military relationship a stabilizer for the relations between the two countries and hence contribute to the China-US relationship based on coordination, cooperation and stability.

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In , the two countries agreed on the annexes on the military crisis notification mechanism and the rules of behavior for safety in air-to-air encounters. In , the two countries established a diplomatic and security dialogue and joint staff dialogue mechanism with a view to actively strengthening strategic communication and managing risks and differences.

The two militaries carry out institutionalized exchanges between the defense authorities, armies, navies and air forces, as well as practical cooperation in HADR, counter-piracy, and exchanges between academic institutions.

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However, in China-US relations, the military-to-military relationship remains the generally stable one. The text is very careful, however, to limit the level of this competition, and its wording makes it clear that China understands the risks involved.

While no major policy document issued by any country has ever been able to fully separate rhetoric from reality, the Chinese White Paper does spend the last five pages of its text describing Chinese efforts to improve regional cooperation, and some are clearly real. The White Paper does not even hint at the level of ideological competition that drove the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the West. And, as important as many security issues are between the U. Seen from this perspective, the Chinese White Paper — like the two recent U.

It is a warning that will shape the future of both the China and the U. The White Paper is not, however, an indication that some mix of U.

China’s grand strategy in outer space: to establish compelling standards of behavior

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For example, cookies allow us to recognize you when you return to a website and present relevant content to you when you visit. Most browsers are initially set up to accept cookies, but you can configure your browser to warn you when cookies are sent, or to refuse all cookies. In late , China asked the U. According to U. None have scattered significant debris, but security officials and analysts remain wary. Inside China, space activities, civil and military, are used to stoke nationalist sentiment. India put a spacecraft into the orbit of Mars in South Korea is preparing for rocket launch tests in And Japan is aiming to send its first lander to the moon in Perhaps the feeling of a race has always been felt most acutely inside nations, between scientists and political leaders.

Scientists knew this would be impossible with the technology they had, and the deadline came and went. China would not launch a satellite until , and political pressures would take precedence over preparedness once more.

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  5. The first satellite was planned to feature sophisticated, data-collecting instruments. We want to hear what you think about this article. Submit a letter to the editor or write to letters theatlantic. China's Long March rocket carrying the crewed spacecraft Shenzhou at the launch center in Jiuquan, China, on October 10, Marina Koren is a staff writer at The Atlantic.